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A Better Way to Profile your Ion Beam in Instrument Design for More Accurate Analysis This paper outlines how the Ion Beam Profiler can be used to aid analytical instrument designers identify ion beam path obstructions, poor alignment and poor focus. The unit provides real time imaging for model verification or for live video capture of high speed events. Microchannel Plates

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A Direct Comparison of Resistive Glass and Stacked-Ring Reflectron This paper compares the performance of a multi-piece stacked ring reflectron and one constructed from Resistive Glass. The single-piece Resistive Glass is similar in performance but requires much less maintenance and assembly. Resistive Glass FieldMaster™

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Achieving High Resolutin in a Benchtop Resistive Glass Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometer An Ion Mobility Spectrometer using Resistive Glass technology shows improved resolving power when tested across a number of samples. Resistive Glass FieldMaster™
APD Selection Guide Advanced Performance Detectors Selection Guide Advanced Performance Detectors
Application Guide for Forced-Air Cooling TP-117 Power Tube Application Note: Handling and Operating Considerations When Using Broadcast-Type Tetrodes Power Tubes
Application Guide for Screen-Grid TP-122 Power Tube Application Note: Screen-Grid Current, Loading, and Bleeder Considerations Power Tubes
Application Guide Power Tubes TP-105 Application Guide for Power Tubes Power Tubes
AREVA Confirmation Neutron and Gamma detectors - AREVA Confirmation Neutron and Gamma detectors
AREVA Label Neutron and Gamma detectors AREVA Label Neutron and Gamma detectors
Auto-Gating Auto-Gatin (ATG) function was designed to improve the BSP feature to be faster and to keep the best resolution and contrast at all times. It is particularly suitable for Aviator’s Night Vision goggles, operations in urban areas or for special operations.... Image Intensifier Tubes

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Beam Profile Monitor Incorporating Very Large Area Electron Generator Arrays The precise determination of transverse beam profiles in accelerator and collider systems is critical to proper operation. The high energy physics community has long sought a capability to determine location and focus of charged particle beams racing through accelerator tubes. Imaging a charged particle beam traveling at speeds approaching the speed of light without changing the velocity or focus has proven to be a challenging task. Whenever scientists have had difficulty measuring small or fast events, they often find the answers lie in observing the things around the event of interest which can be observed. This paper outlines how a dense array of electrons could be used in a similar manner to profile charged particle beams. Electron Generator Arrays
Black Spots Black Spots are cosmetic blemishes that may originate from fixed particles inside the I2 tube or in the fiber optic. Small size black spots in the I2 tube are inherent to the manufacturing process and do not affect the performance or reliability of the device..... Image Intensifier Tubes
Channeltron Selection Guide Channeltron Selection Guide Channeltron® Electron Multipliers

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Characterization of a New High Resolution Ion Beam Imager to Improve Ion Beam Analysis in Mass Spectrometers This paper discusses how a digital low light CMOS camera can be paired with a Microchannel Plate equipped with a phosphor screen to provide real-time imagry of an ion beam to ensure proper focus and alignment for the most accurate analysis. Microchannel Plates

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Characterization of Common Electron Multipliers in Harsh Environments This paper discusses the performance of channel electron multipliers designed for use in harsh environments. Increasingly the need for portable machines that operate at high pressure or poor vacuum enviroments are also requiring smaller, more durable detectors. Lifetime and performance results are presented. Channeltron® Electron Multipliers

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Characterization of the Uniformity and Stability of Resistive Glass Testing was performed on Resistive Glass to characterize resistance uniformity, resistance stability both at room temperature and over temperature change, voltage breakdown and chemical durability. Resistive Glass FieldMaster™
Chevron Start-up procedure Chevron MCP and Detector Initial Start-up and Electrical Test Procedure Microchannel Plates
Custom Mass Spectrometer Detectors and Inlet Tubes for use in Portable Security and Forensic Applications As analytical instruments become smaller and more portable, it is crucial to good analytical analysis to have compact, high-performing detectors that will operate in a variety of environmental conditions, most notably poor vacuum. This paper presents a wide range of available detectors that can be used in security or forensic analysis in the field as well as in the lab. Microchannel Plates
Product(s) :
- Channeltron® Electron Multiplier1

- Miniature Channeltron® Electron Multiplier1

- Miniature TOF Detector1

- MegaSpiraltron™ High Pressure Electron Multiplier1

- Spiraltron™ High Pressure Electron Multipliers1
Custom Mass Spectrometer Detectors and Inlet Tubes for use in Portable Security and Forensic Applications As analytical instruments become smaller and more portable, it is crucial to good analytical analysis to have compact, high-performing detectors that will operate in a variety of environmental conditions, most notably poor vacuum. This paper presents a wide range of available detectors that can be used in security or forensic analysis in the field as well as in the lab. Channeltron® Electron Multipliers
Product(s) :
- Channeltron® Electron Multiplier1

- Miniature Channeltron® Electron Multiplier1

- Miniature TOF Detector1

- MegaSpiraltron™ High Pressure Electron Multiplier1

- Spiraltron™ High Pressure Electron Multipliers1

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Design and Construction of a Benchtop High Resolution Atmospheric Pressure Resistive Glass Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometer Resistive Glass can be used to enhance ion throughput. This paper discusses the construction and test of an ion mobility spectrometer using Resistive Glass drift tubes and reaction tubes, and a unique Bradbury-Nielsen ion gate built using photo-etching technology. In this paper a DART ionization source was used for testing. Resistive Glass FieldMaster™

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Development of a 2-inch square Position-sensing PMT for use in Medical Imaging This paper discusses the design and manufacture of a square photomultiplier tube (PMT) for use in an MCP-PMT hybrid detector for medical imaging applications. The unique square shape allows multiple units to be tiled together to form a larger image. Photon Detectors
Product(s) :
- PLANACON™ Photodetector1

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Development of Miniature Electron Multipliers for Use in Portable Mass Spectrometers Technology advancements have allowed ion detectors to operate in poor vacuum conditions while still providing high gain, low noise, and long life. These detectors require little power and space, enabling high quality analysis in a truly portable instrument Microchannel Plates
Product(s) :
- MAGNUM® Electron Multiplier1

- Spiraltron™ High Pressure Electron Multipliers1

- MegaSpiraltron™ High Pressure Electron Multiplier1
Development of Night Vision The first night vision devices were introduced during World War II. Generation 0 devices did not actually amplify ambient light, but rather allowed a user to see near‐infrared light. These so‐called active devices required the use of a large infrared light source to illuminate targets, and consequently were easily detectable by opposing forces using similar equipment.... Image Intensifier Tubes

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Development of Novel Monolithic Resistive Glass Tubes wit Multi-Stage Capability for Use as a Reflectrons, Ion Guides and Collision Cells A new technology has been developed which enables single piece structures made of Resistive Glass to produce multiple linear stages. This advancement enables low cost, easy-to-clean single piece reflectrons, collision cells or ion guides to be produced. Resistive Glass FieldMaster™

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Development of Resistive Glass Multi-Capillary Inlet Tubes for Enhanced Ion Transport Resistive Glass has proven to be successful at increasing the ion transmission in atmospheric pressure ionization sources. This paper discusses the manufacture of a multi-channel inlet tube and its effects on ion throughput Resistive Glass FieldMaster™
Discrete Dynodes Leaflet PHOTONIS provides a range of Discrete Dynode Electron Multipliers to provide plug‐and‐play replacement modules for ICP‐MS instruments. These Electron Multipliers provide excellent lifetime with fast timing and high sensitivity response. Discrete Dynodes Detectors

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Electonic Imaging Detector This paper discusses the use of a microchannel plate phosphor screen-based detector paired with a camera, which can capture images from the phosphor screen in real time. It can be used for VUV Spectroscopy, Imaging TOF or High Energy Physics Applications Time of Flight Detectors
Product(s) :
- Charged Particle Beam Profiler1
Electronic Warfare Photonis is a leading provider of Electronic Warfare solutions to militaries around the world. Our continual innovation and development allows warfi ghters to make the fi rst move against any threat. Traveling Wave Tubes & Accessories

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Experimental Evaluation of Resistive Glass Ion Optics Resistive Glass is formed into a Reflectron Lens and evaluated for resistance uniformity and directly compared to the performance of a stacked ring assembly Reflectron. Results show that Resistive Glass is well suited for making ion optics components that simplify cleaning and replacement. Resistive Glass FieldMaster™
Fast Timing Product Overview Solutions for High-Speed Photonic Timing Sub-nano second speeds support a variety of applications. Optical Receivers
Fast Timing Product Overview Solutions for High-Speed Photonic Timing Sub-nano second speeds support a variety of applications. Photon Detectors
Fast Timing Product Overview Solutions for High-Speed Photonic Timing Sub-nano second speeds support a variety of applications. Streak Tubes
Fiber Optic Multi-Mode Transmission The theory of multi-mode fiber optic components is presented in terms of simple component and system concepts. Each concept is accompanied with illustrations and sufficient equations so that a designer can develop the needed mathematical expressions to make trade-offs in system parameters and to predict system performance. Fiber Optic Light Guides
Fiber Optics: Theory and Applications This paper discusses the theory of fiber optic transmission, with an in depth discussion of reflection, refraction and numerical aperture along with a variety of geometrical configurations. Fiber Optic Light Guides
FieldMaster Brochure FieldMaster-Brochure.pdf Resistive Glass FieldMaster™
Gain Image Intensifier Tubes work by collecting low levels of light, amplifying them to levels that can be easily observed. The tube gain (which is also referred to as brightness gain or luminance gain) is the magnitude, or number of times the image intensifier amplifies the light input. Gain is calculated as the ratio of light output divided by light input and typically has a value1 of 15,000 cd/m²/lx, with a maximum of 22,000 cd/m²/lx. In all night vision systems, the gain is reduced by the system’s lenses and is affected by the quality of optics and filters, therefore system gain is an important measure of performance for the end user.... Image Intensifier Tubes
Glass Capillary Arrays Glass Capillary Arrays (GCAs) consist of millions of precision glass capillary tubes fused together to produce a uniform and mechanically rigid structure. They can be supplied as circular or rectangular thin plates and offer sieve-like filtration with a positive particle size cut-off. GCAs are strong, self-supporting devices with exceptional thermal and chemical stability; they can be manufactured to withstand temperatures greater than 450 °C for applications in severe environments. Resistive Glass FieldMaster™
Halo When operating in dynamic light conditions, images provided through Image Intensifier Tubes show “halos” around the brightest spots in the scene, for example; street lights or car headlights are typically surrounded by round bright areas, disturbing the overall image quality and ‘whiting out’ part or the entire image. The primary cause of a halo is the fraction of photoelectrons generated by the photocathode when they hit the surface between holes of the MCP input, and then backscatter. Image Intensifier Tubes
Handling & Operating Considerations TP-117 Power Tube Application Note: Handling and Operating Considerations When Using Broadcast-Type Tetrodes Power Tubes
Handling & Storage Instructions – EN Storage, Handling and Operation of Microchannel Plates - English version Microchannel Plates
Handling & Storage Instructions – EN LAGERUNG, BEHANDLUNG und ANWENDUNG von MIKROKANALPLATTEN (MCPs) Microchannel Plates
Handling & Storage Instructions – SP ALMACENAMIENTO, MANEJO Y OPERACION DE PLACAS DE MICROCANALES (MCP) Microchannel Plates
Hi QE Brochure High Quantum Efficiency Photocathode is specifically designed to improve quantum efficiency by up to 50%, the Hi-QE photocathode sets a new standard for dark count rates and spectral sensitivity. Photonis’ innovation in photocathode technologies improves the traditional S20 or S25 photocathodes signifi cantly, providing an unmatched combination of fast response time, low dark counts, and increased spectral sensitivity. With Photonis’ Hi-QE photocathode, quantum effi ciency increases by up to 50% and the dark count rate is lowered by as much as 10X. The Hi-QE photocathode is available as an option in MCP-PMTs, image intensifi er tubes, and hybrid photo diodes off ered by Photonis. When you use Photonis’ Hi-QE photocathode in your detector, you will be the fi rst to discover the next scientific breakthrough. Photon Detectors
Product(s) :
- Hi-QE Photocathodes1

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High Dynamic Range Ion Detection Using Channel Electron Multipliers Improving the dynamic range of a channel electron multiplier to operate at high output current. The paper discusses the addition of discrete dynodes to a six-channel electron multiplier to achieve this operation and examines the effect on the lifetime of the detector. Channeltron® Electron Multipliers

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High Quantum Efficiency S20 Photocathodes in Photon Counting Applications Improvements were done to a standard S20 photocathode that increase the quantum efficiency by up to 50%. Test results on a Chevron style MCP-PMT are presented. Cameras
Product(s) :
- Hi-QE Photocathodes1

- Imaging Photon Counting Camera1
High Voltage Power Supply PF1053 Bench-top High Voltage Power Supply for Laboratory Applications Power Supplies
High Voltage Power Supply PF1055 Quad output, High Voltage Rack Mount Power Supply designed for use with PHOTONIS bipolar time-of-flight detectors Power Supplies
How an Image Intensifier Tube Works How an Image Intensifier Tube Works Image Intensifier Tubes
How an MCP works For over thirty years, PHOTONIS (formerly Philips Photonics, Galileo and Burle) has consistently set the standard in electron multipliers and related products. Today, an extensive R&D program coupled with unsurpassed expertise in microchannel plate (MCP) technology continues to deliver a succession of product and process improvements that push aside previous technology limits.... Microchannel Plates
HPD Brochure Photonis custom manufactures Hybrid Photo Diodes to detect the largest amount of photons while eliminating any extra noise. Hybrid Photo Diodes combine vacuum-based image intensification techniques with a silicon diode. Ideal for single photon counting applications, with Photonis’ Hybrid Photo Diode solutions you will be the first to examine new phenomena. Photon Detectors
Product(s) :
- Hybrid Photo Diodes1
Image Intensifier Brochure Image intensifiers are used to amplify across a wide range of wavelengths, making them visible for researchers to observe behavior and phenomena. Photonis off ers the largest selection of both standard and custom detectors in the market, with unmatched gating and photocathode options, including the highest quantum effi ciency available. Photon Detectors
Image Intensifier Brochure Image intensifiers are used to amplify across a wide range of wavelengths, making them visible for researchers to observe behavior and phenomena. Photonis off ers the largest selection of both standard and custom detectors in the market, with unmatched gating and photocathode options, including the highest quantum effi ciency available. Image Intensifier Tubes
Imaging Photon Counter Brochure Photonis’ Imaging Photon Counter provides a unique set of capabilities to support fast imaging techniques under light-starved conditions. The Imaging Photon Counter combines innovative MCP detector technologies and specially-designed fast electronics. With no read noise and a wide-fi eld of view, the Imaging Photon Counter supports TCSPC applications in extreme low light. Photon Detectors
Product(s) :
- Imaging Photon Counting Camera1
Imaging Photon Counter Brochure Photonis’ Imaging Photon Counter provides a unique set of capabilities to support fast imaging techniques under light-starved conditions. The Imaging Photon Counter combines innovative MCP detector technologies and specially-designed fast electronics. With no read noise and a wide-fi eld of view, the Imaging Photon Counter supports TCSPC applications in extreme low light. Cameras
Product(s) :
- Imaging Photon Counting Camera1

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Imaging Photon Counter Specifications The Imaging Photon Counter offers some innovative features such as: ● Wide Field of View: full C-Mount wide fi eld of view (18mm round) ● Single Photon Time Tagging: 100pS timing resolution ● High Spatial Resolution: spatial resolution on the X and Y axis <40μm ● High Count Rates: Equipped for input event rates up to 5MHz and local count rates to 10kHz Photon Detectors

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Imaging Photon Counting Camera with high Spatiotemporal resolution Photon counting detectors with high spatiotemporal resolution are key tools of imaging techniques where picosecond timing and micrometer imaging are required, for example in time resolved single molecule imaging. PHOTONIS’ Imaging Photon Camera (IPC) is a wide field of view (18 mm active area) system able to detect individual photons within resolution of 100 ps in time and 40 μm FWHM in position. The Imaging Photon Camera consists of a dual microchannel plate (MCP) tube equipped with a 22 mm cross strip (XS) anode and specially designed high speed electronics that achieve global count rates up to 5 MHz. Cameras
Product(s) :
- Imaging Photon Counting Camera1
Improved Lifetime and Performance for Your Mass Spectrometer This article discusses how improvements to electron multipliers bring extended lifetime and higher gain for better mass spectrometer analysis Channeltron® Electron Multipliers
Product(s) :
- MAGNUM® Electron Multiplier1

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Improving MALDI-TOF Performance with Practical Implementation of Very High Post-Acceleration This paper discusses ways to improve MALDI-TOF performance in ion masses in excess of 100kDa by applying very high post-acceleration voltages. Time of Flight Detectors

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Improving Quantification in Time of Flight (TOF) Mass Spectrometers by Optimizing Detector Response This paper looks at ways to optimize the operating parameters of a Time of Flight detector. The paper examines the effects of various MCPs, voltages and gain on the detector. Time of Flight Detectors

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Innovative Technologies in Resistive Glass for Efficient Ion Transport PHOTONIS Resistive Glass specialty tubes and plates are designed to control the velocity of ions by generating a uniform electric field. PHOTONIS provides a number of products that use Resistive Glass to improve the efficiency of an analytical instrument. Resistive Glass FieldMaster™

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Isolating the Effects of Microchannel Plate Parameters on the Ultimate Resolution in Time-of-Flight Detectors This paper examines the effects of pore sizes and bias angles of the Microchannel Plates used in Time of Flight Detectors. Experiments were done to determine how the parameters of the MCP could be manipulated to minimize time jitter to ultimately improve the detection resolution of a Time of Flight detector. Efforts to control flatness of the MCP are also discussed Time of Flight Detectors
MCP Brochure For more than 40 years, Photonis has led the industry in electron multiplication products with our Long-Life™ Microchannel Plates. Our unrivaled expertise in designing and manufacturing MCPs ensures our customers receive the most sensitive and reliable systems available. Photonis specializes in providing MCPs in custom formats so that you will be the fi rst to discover new phenomena. Microchannel Plates
MCP PMT Brochure As the global leader in high-speed photon detection, Photonis has been designing custom MCP-PMTs for years. Photonis MCP-PMTs are ideal for high speed, single photon counting applications. With our highly sensitive MCP-PMT photon detectors, you will be able to perform faster and more accurate testing. Photon Detectors
MCP Selection Guide Long-Life™ Microchannel Plates exclusively from PHOTONIS provide sustained output up to fi ve times longer than other MCPs. Extended Dynamic Range™ MCPs provide the highest dynamic range available (EDR). Detection Effi ciency - PHOTONIS offers small pore MCPs and optional enhancement coatings for the highest possible detection effi ciency. TruFlite™ MountingPad™ MCPs reduce the Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer arrival time jitter Microchannel Plates
Micro Pore Optic brochure A compact and lightweightalternative to conventional X-Ray optics, the Micro Pore Optic allows a broad range of imaging options for UV, EUV and X-Rays. Photonis designed the Micro Pore Optic detector to be used in X-Ray imaging applications. Its perfectly square, fl at channels are optimized to allow X-Ray and UV photons to be focused or collimated due to the total external reflection at a grazing angle of less incidence. Micro Pore Optics are installed on a number of international space missions. The unique squarepore plate is efficient and can be confi gured in radially packed or square packed channels. They are provided with Iridium coatings to enhance reflection and films to provide a heat shield. Micro Pore Optic detectors provide a more robust alternative to the standard X-Ray and UV imaging products available today. Microchannel Plates
Product(s) :
- Micro Pore Optic1
Micro Pore Optic Selection Guide A Micro Pore Optic consists of millions of square channels arranged in a well defined order. The surfaces inside the square channels have a near perfect flatness and a very low roughness. X-ray and UV photons can be focussed, concentrated or collimated by virtue of total external reflection at grazing angle inside the micro pore channels. The MPOs have been developed for X-ray imaging applications on interplanetary space missions. Compared to conventional X-ray optics MPOs are extremely compact and of ultra low mass. For terrestrial applications, the truly imaging capability of the novel MPO technology opens up new and unexplored potentials in the domain of X-ray, UV and EUV optical instrumentation. Microchannel Plates
Product(s) :
- Micro Pore Optic1
Micro pore optics from planetary x-ray imager to industrial market For over fifteen years, micro-Channel plate (MCP) optics, later termed "Micro Pore Optics" (MPOs) - have been under development to replace the heavy Wolter Type 1 replicated or foil mirrors currently used in X-ray astronomy.The European Space Agency Technology Research Programme (TRP), notes a reliable manufacturing process has now been established, able to produce high quality, low mass X-ray and UV optics in a variety of formats. Optimisation of the glass preparation and drawing technology, in line process controls and metrology as well as improvements in the fibre stacking processes, core glass etching and plate slumping have all been developed. Channel coating methods have also been developed to enhance the high energy response. All these improvements enable Photonis to offer MPOs with square pores from 10x10 μm up to 100x100 μm, with channel aspect ratios of up to 500:1 in both square and radially packed geometries in various shapes and with focal lengths in the range 10 cm to several metres. Microchannel Plates
Product(s) :
- Micro Pore Optic1
Microchannel Plate Detctors This paper reviews the theory of operation and different types of Microchannel Plate configurations and discusses in depth parameters, efficiencies and operation. Microchannel Plates
Microwave Power Products PHOTONIS is a world leader in the development and manufacture of the highest quality power and signal amplifi ers, integrating both vacuum electron and solid state technologies, for reliable high-effi ciency and high broadband frequency communications systems. Our innovation in metal-to-ceramic construction and patented fi ve-stage collector set the industry standard. Our products enable the world’s most powerful and sophisticated radars, electronic warfare jammers, missile systems and weapon system simulators as well as military and commercial satellite data communications devices. PHOTONIS provides superior microwave and signal products to all branches of the US Military, NATO and NATO aligned allies, and to a wide range of commercial customers. PHOTONIS also provides a full range of professional engineering services, from design and development of custom solutions, to system engineering, integration and support. Traveling Wave Tubes & Accessories
Miniature Ion Detectors for Mass Spectrometers Help Move Laboratory Analysis into the Field This article describes advancements in the development of miniature ion detectors to facilitate the implementation of truly portable mass spectrometers, residual gas analyzers and other analytical instruments. A wide variety of detectors are available Microchannel Plates
Modulation Transfer Function The MTF of an imaging night vision device is the major characteristic that illustrates how well this device can reproduce the contrast of the observed scene. The MTF is the most objective tool to predict the image quality of the I² tube at high light levels. Image Intensifier Tubes
Night Vision Technology FAQ HOW DOES AN IMAGE INTENSIFIER WORK? WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GENERATIONS? WHAT ARE IMPORTANT PARAMETERS FOR IMAGE INTENSIFIERS? WHAT IS MEANT BY HALO SIZE? HOW FAR CAN I SEE WITH AN IMAGE INTENSIFIER? WHAT CAUSES IMAGE BURN IN? Image Intensifier Tubes
Nuclear Instrumentation Selection Guide Neutron and Gamma detectors Selection Guide Neutron and Gamma detectors
OEM Replacement Guide PHOTONIS offers a full range of replacement electron multipliers, microchannel plates and ion detectors for mass spectrometers, FIB, SEM, SIMS and residual gas analyzers. Replacement Channeltron® single channel Electron Multipliers, Microchannel Plates and Advanced Performance Detectors are manufactured and tested to the original performance specifications Advanced Performance Detectors
OEM Replacement Guide PHOTONIS offers a full range of replacement electron multipliers, microchannel plates and ion detectors for mass spectrometers, FIB, SEM, SIMS and residual gas analyzers. Replacement Channeltron® single channel Electron Multipliers, Microchannel Plates and Advanced Performance Detectors are manufactured and tested to the original performance specifications Channeltron® Electron Multipliers
OEM Replacement Guide PHOTONIS offers a full range of replacement electron multipliers, microchannel plates and ion detectors for mass spectrometers, FIB, SEM, SIMS and residual gas analyzers. Replacement Channeltron® single channel Electron Multipliers, Microchannel Plates and Advanced Performance Detectors are manufactured and tested to the original performance specifications Microchannel Plates
OEM Replacement Guide PHOTONIS offers a full range of replacement electron multipliers, microchannel plates and ion detectors for mass spectrometers, FIB, SEM, SIMS and residual gas analyzers. Replacement Channeltron® single channel Electron Multipliers, Microchannel Plates and Advanced Performance Detectors are manufactured and tested to the original performance specifications Time of Flight Detectors
Optical Receiver Brochure Photonis’ Optical Receiver is a high speed optical detector that is suitable for fast optical signals in the green to ultra-violet spectral range. The Optical Receiver module is also suitable for operation in vacuum environments. Optical Receivers
Product(s) :
- Optical Receiver1

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Optimizing a Dual-Stage, Continuous-Mode Discrete Dynode Detector for Mass Spectrometry This paper discusses the development of a dual-stage continuous-mode discrete dynode detector, with an emphasis on optimizing operational lifetime. Performance characteristics of pulse gain, linearity, gate switching, differential drift and gain correleation are also discussed. Channeltron® Electron Multipliers
Optimizing Double-Tuned TP-162 Application Guide Optimizing Double-Tuned Output Circuits For Tetrode Power Amplifiers Using the Y1400/9017 1kW UHF Cavity Amplifier as the Demo Circuit Power Tubes

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Optimizing the Microchannel Plate Detector Assembly to Improve Time of Flight Mass Resolution This paper discusses new methodologies to improve the flatness of the MCPs used in Time of Flight Detectors. Minimizing the variation in MCP flatness is shown to decrease the time jitter with experimental data in a prototype detector. Time of Flight Detectors

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Performance Characteristics of Detectors Operated in Harsh Environments This paper discusses the effect of detector degredation when exposed to high atmospheric pressure operation. A comparison of channel electron multipliers in single- and six-channel types were evaluated as was a new MountingPad rimless Microchannel Plate. Microchannel Plates
Product(s) :
- MountingPad™ Microchannel Plate1

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Performance Characterization Of A Simultaneous Positive and Negative Ion Detector For Mass Spectrometry Applications Recent advances in shadow mask and laser ablation technology have opened up new possibilities for making compact segmented detectors.The active area of the microchannel plate can now be effectively partitioned into multiple areas offering specific performance capabilities. Separate areas could be effectively biased to preferentially detect either positively or negatively charged particles. Time of Flight Detectors
Product(s) :
- BiPolar TOF Detector1

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Performance of PHOTONIS' Low Light Imaging Sensors for Long Range Observation A new CMOS sensor has been developed which provides a unique ability to see in both full daylight and extreme low light conditions (bright starlight) at high frame rates and high resolution. This has been implemented into a camera and tested at low light conditions at long range against CCD and other CMOS cameras. The results show up to 40% increase in DRI range even in low light conditions. Cameras
Photonics Overview Photonis has a long history of developing innovative and awardwinning photonics products. We provide a wide range of highspeed, high resolution and fast timing photonic detection products that reveal high-energy particle physics phenomena, fl y into distant galaxies, and diagnose medical illnesses. With Photonis photonic detection products, you will be the fi rst to discover what has been hidden in your universe. Photon Detectors
Planacon brochure The Planacon family of photon detectors combines the sensitivity and low noise of an MCP-PMT detector with a square shape that provides superior photon counting and excellent uniformity. Planacons are ideal for photon-starved, high-speed and high-energy photon counting applications such as fl uorescence imaging, physics research or medical imaging. With Planacon detectors from Photonis, you will be the fi rst to uncover the next critical breakthrough. Photon Detectors
Product(s) :
- PLANACON™ Photodetector1

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Quantifying and Improving the Lifetime of Hybrid Detectors In exploring new ways to optimize hybrid ion detectors, this paper examines ways in which performance improvement and the balance of individual components can combine to extend the lifetime of detectors. Experimental data on an MCP-PMT BiPolar TOF detector are presented. Channeltron® Electron Multipliers
Radar Communications Photonis is an industry leader in providing reliable and accurate radar solutions to global militaries. Our broad range of products, combined with the innovation and versatility to engineer custom solutions, allows you to be the fi rst to recognize any incoming threat. Traveling Wave Tubes & Accessories

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Raising the Bar on Electron Multiplier Operation at Elevated Pressures This paper explores the boundaries of electron multiplication for amplification at pressures above 1x10-4 Torr. Using gain, voltage and dark current measurements in differing multiplier geometries, the maximum operating pressure as a function of voltage and detector gain is presented. Channeltron® Electron Multipliers

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Reducing Detector Time Jitter to improve Mass Resolution in a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer The effects of combining previous research regarding optimizing Microchannel Plates with regards to both optimal resolution parameters and MCP flatness to increase mass resolution by as much as 15%. Time of Flight Detectors
Reflectron Lenses Brochure Monolithic Segmented Resistive Glass Reflectron Lenses Resistive Glass FieldMaster™

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Resistive Glass Drift Tubes with Air Stable Surface and Multiple Voltage Statges Resistive Glass provides key benefits for ion mobility drift tubes, such as highly uniform electric fields with minimal radial inhomogeneities, simple one-piece construction and containment for counter-flow gas. The combination of uniform electric field and the turbulence-free counter-flow gas produces resolving powers of over 100. However, for some applications, the resistivity drift of Resistive Glass tubes exposed to oxygen-containing environments can be problematic. A new process has been developed that provides greater stability of resistivity when Resistive Glass tubes are operated in air. Improved stability was also realized for tubes heated in air to 200ºC. Resistive Glass FieldMaster™
Satellite Communications Brochure Since 1942, Photonis has provided the world with reliable radio frequency (RF) power and Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) technologies to beliver broadcast, satellite and data solutions. No matter how you need to communicate, Photonis ensures you will be the fi rst to receive all critical communications. Traveling Wave Tubes & Accessories
Signal-to-Noise Ratio The Signal‐to‐Noise Ratio (SNR) is the key parameter to predict the performances of an I2 tube in low light conditions. In the lowest light conditions, the image quality is highly dependent upon the light evel. When it is very dark (below highly overcast starlight), even with the best tubes there is almost no image and mainly noise scintillation. The SNR is a function of the light level; in order to compare tubes, the world standard is to measure the SNR at a given fixed light level of 108 μlx (in International Units) or 10‐5 foot candle (in American Units).... Image Intensifier Tubes
Single Start-up procedure CEMATM Single MCP and Detector Initial Start-up and Electrical Test Procedure Microchannel Plates
Streak Tube Brochure Photonis high resolution streak tubes set the standard in image resolution and reliability. With a wide range of spatial and temporal resolutions, Photonis streak tubes support extremely high speed applications with simple connections to common camera equipment. Streak Tubes
Streak Tube Guide Streak camera manufacturers in particular have an unequalled choice of tubes with which to set the standard in picture resolution and can choose from types for combined streak/frame cameras as well as dedicated types for a specific application. All tubes are easy-to-control and are designed to take into account the commonly-used readout equipment, preferred image formats and optical coupling of today's cameras. Custom tubes can also be supplied. Streak Tubes
Product(s) :
- Streak Tube1
Streak Tube Reference List PHOTONIS Streak Tube Reference List Streak Tubes

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Streak Tube Specifications Photonis high resolution streak tubes set the standard in image resolution and reliability. With a wide range of spatial and temporal resolutions, Photonis streak tubes support extremely high speed applications with simple connections to common camera equipment. Photonis streak tubes can provide spatial resolution up to 50 lp/mm, temporal resolution to sub-picosecond in streak mode, or exposure times less than 10 ns in framing mode making them a versatile solution to support a wide range of applications. Streak Tubes
Product(s) :
- Streak Tube1
Streak Tube Technology PHOTONIS' streak tubes are the most advanced on the market owing to: Bilamellar electron optics This invention separates temporal and spatial electron crossover space charge saturation for combined optimal temporal and spatial resolution. Transfer technology The transfer technology is the ultimate production method to produce top-class multialkali photocathodes. It leaves no alkali dispensers inside the tube resulting in long-life cathodes. Mastery of S1 manufacture Our unique know-how of the S1-cathode process results in tubes with the same long life as traditional multi-alkali cathode tubes. Streak Tubes
Technical Overview of Long-Life Microchannel Plates This paper reviews the design and development of Microchannel Plates and details the technology advancements incorporated that extend the lifetime of the detector while preserving high mass resolution and timing. Microchannel Plates
Technology glossary https://www.photonis.com/en/technology-glossary Image Intensifier Tubes

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The Development of a Micro-Miniature Microchannel Plate Based Detector For Mass Spectrometry Applications This paper discusses the development of an MCP-based detector less than 9mm in diameter with a gain of at least 100X. A new technology using brazed ceramic to metal seals was used. Noise tests were done to determine the effects of use in poor vacuum environments Advanced Performance Detectors
Product(s) :
- QUANTUM™ Sub-Miniature APD1

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The Development of a Novel Cold Electron Source Microchannel Plates can be modified to function as spontaneous electron emitters. These electron generators are created by altering the microstructure of the MCP channel, so that spontaneously emitted electrons can be produced, causing cascading secondary electrons. The emission current can be varied over a broad range. Electron Generator Arrays

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The Development of a Novel Electron Multiplier with an Onboard Integral High Voltage Power Supply for use in Mass Spectrometers This paper characterizes the performance of using an onboard integral high voltage power supply in comparison to a traditional external rack-mounted power supply. Channeltron® Electron Multipliers
The Development of an Improved Electron Multiplier for Mass Spectrometry Applications A six-channel electron multiplier has been developed to enhance the efficiency of mass spectrometers. This new detector provides longer lifetime and low noise in a small profile. Channeltron® Electron Multipliers
Product(s) :
- MAGNUM® Electron Multiplier1

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The Development of an Ultra Low Noise Microchannel Plate Based Ion Detector A new alkali doped lead silicate glass is used to create Microchannel Plates that exhibit extremely low background noise when compared to traditional MCPs. These new MCPs are also compared to traditional ones for lifetime, gain, uniformity and quantum efficiency. Microchannel Plates

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The Development of Novel Resistive Glass Technology to Simplify and Improve Designs in Analytical Instruments A new proprietary reduced led silicate glass can be made into geometric glass structures. The glass has resistive properties and can create a very uniform electric field to more effectively guide or attract charged particles. The glass can also have thin film metallization points. These geometric structures can be used for drift tubes, ion guides, collision cells, reflectron lenses and more. Resistive Glass FieldMaster™

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The Development of Novel Resistive Glass Technology to Simplify Ion Reflectron Lenses, Ion Guides, Drift Tubes and Ion Source Designs in Analytical Instruments This paper examines how Resistive Glass can be used to manufacture reflectron lenses, ion guides, drift tubes and ion sources with similar performance and significantly simplifying the analtyical instrument's design Resistive Glass FieldMaster™

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The development of the 2 micron pore Microchannel plate An in-depth review of MCP history leading to the development, fabrication and quantification of a 2 micron pore microchannel plate. This new plate allows for a high speed detector with high spatial resolution. Microchannel Plates

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The Effects of Endspoiling Variations on MCP Performance This paper discusses various variations of endspoiling on microchannel plates (MCPs) to evaluate the effects on performance. Gain and spatial resolution variances were tested in both single MCP and Cheveron configurations. Microchannel Plates
TOF Selection Guide PHOTONIS offers the fastest Time-of-Flight Detectors and the widest variety to fi t most mass spectrometer applications. Whether you need a Gen2TM Ultra-Fast TOF Detector, or an Advanced Performance Bi-Polar Detector, choosing PHOTONIS products will guarantee you have the temporal resolution, dynamic range, and high mass sensitivity you need. Time of Flight Detectors
Voice of America Paper TECHNIQUES TO EXTEND THE SERVICE LIFE OF HIGH POWER VACUUM TUBES Power Tubes
What is Night Vision? Night vision enables to operate safely in night and low light conditions. Owning the best night vision equipment on the market will not always provide the best images. Only quality Image Intensifier Tubes (I2Ts) can provide the best night vision images. That’s why it is important, not only to choose a good quality night vision goggle, but to equip it with the best possible Image Intensifier. Image Intensifier Tubes
XR5 and GEN3 In the late 1990s, innovations in photocathode technology through proprietary doped techniques developed solely by PHOTONIS, enabled a big advancement. These innovations significantly reduced the be’s noise and increased the signal‐to‐noise ratio which is the undisputed characteristic to describe the low light level performance of an I2 ‐ and to allow comparison of tubes of various origins and echnologies. These newly developed I2 tubes started surpassing the performance of Gen 3 tubes.... Image Intensifier Tubes
Z-Stack Start-up procedure Z-Stack MCP and Detector Initial Start-up and Electrical Test Procedure Microchannel Plates

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